KETA BACKGROUND INFORMATION
Keta Municipality is one of the Eighteen (18) districts in the Volta Region of Ghana, and one of the oldest as well. It lies at the south-eastern corner of the Volta Region, between longitude 0°30E and 1°05E. It is located east of the Volta estuary, about 160km to the east of Accra, off the Accra-Aflao main road.
The Municipality shares common borders with Akatsi District to the North, Gulf of Guinea to the South, South Tongu District to the west and Ketu District to the east.
It has a total land area of about 1,086km2, out of which about a third is covered with water bodies (362km2.). Among the water bodies, the Keta lagoon is the largest and the most important. It is about 1.2km wide and 32km long. It is a designated wetland area. It is a source of fish production and wealth creation for communities lying along it. It divides the municipality into two, North and South. Over the years, over-exploitation has led to reduced fish stocks.
The remaining land area of 724 km2 creates a situation of severe constraint on access to land for development in the Municipality and makes the population density high.
The Volta River passes through the western part of the Municipality at Galo-Sota and Anyanui before finally emptying itself into the sea at the estuary in Ada.
Topography
The whole of the Keta Municipality is a low lying coastal plain, with the highest point of about 53 metres above sea level around Abor in the North. The lowest point is approximately between 1.0-3.5 metres below sea level along the coast around Vodza, Kedzi and Keta.
The Municipality can be divided into 3 geographical belts namely, southern, middle and northern belts.
The southern belt consists of a narrow strip of land along the coast, stretching from Anyanui to Havedzi, characterized by sandbars. This belt is affected by severe sea erosion since the 1960s when the erosion begun, it is estimated that about five miles of Keta coastal land has been washed away by the sea with consequent destruction of property, including schools, roads, private houses, historical edifices, etc and this contributed to significant out-migration from the area. The distance between the beach and the Keta lagoon has markedly reduced over the years into a narrow strip. The government has completed a sea defence project to reclaim and protect the coastal shoreline. The Keta Sea Defence Project has increased this distance by filling parts of the lagoon and reclaiming some portions of the land.
The middle belt or the lagoon basin is also below sea level. It is made up of islands and lagoons and covers Shime and Kome areas. The middle belt is generally marshy due to the underlying sandy-clay geological formation and gets flooded during the rainy season making access very difficult or impossible.
The northern belt covers the whole of Anyako Sub-municipality and Anlo-Afiadenyigba. It has a relatively higher elevation of 50 meters above sea level.
The southern and northern sectors are sandy with serious implications for accessibility with road transport.
Climate
The Municipality is in the dry coastal equatorial climate with an annual average rainfall of less than 1,000mm. The amount of rainfall reduces as one travels from the north to the south, where the annual average is about 800mm.The Municipality is therefore among one of the driest along the coast of Ghana.
There are two main seasons, the dry and the wet seasons. The Wet season consists of the major and minor rainy seasons. The major season starts from March-July and the minor season starts from September to November.
The dry season also consists of a major one starting from January –March and the minor dry season from August-September.
High temperatures are experienced all the year round. The average temperature experienced is 30°C.
Vegetation
The Municipality is situated in the coastal savannah zone. The vegetation cover can be divided into three main zones. The northern zone has a vegetation cover consisting of shrubs, and medium sized trees with relatively thicker density. In the middle zone, the vegetation is made up of short grasses, short trees with Pamira palm and baobab trees, and large pockets of land supporting little or no vegetation. The vegetation of the coastal belt consists of mainly short grasses, short trees, occurrence of Neem trees, mangrove swamps towards the east and coconut trees, most of which have been destroyed by the Cape St. Paul Wilt disease. The mangrove swamps represent an enormous economic potential for the people at the eastern part of the Municipality who cut them for use as firewood, although its preservation as an important ecological zone has been emphasized in the past.
Population
The total population of the area projected from the 2000 census, based on annual growth rate of 1.9%. 2012 population is 167531.
The people in the Municipality are mainly Ewes, forming about 98.8% of the population. The remaining ethnic minorities are Gas and Akans. The population is distributed in 175 communities.
The predominant religion of the people is Christianity, which forms about 59%, while 39% of the people practise traditional religion. Followers of traditional religion also form numerous streams of different persuasions and significantly influence life in the Municipality. For example, in cases of infertility, a couple who has consulted a god before getting a child is not supposed to bring out the child until he/she has been brought to shrine. This affects early childhood immunization with polio and BCG. Children and adults with unexplained illnesses may seek healing by joining the Yewe or Fiashidi cults which are common in the area.
The main recreational activities of the people are drumming and dancing of Agbadza. There are video houses in the Keta/Anloga urban area where mostly the youth patronize.
Traditional & Political Administration
The traditional administration is headed by TogbuiAgbesiAwusu (II), Awadada of Anlo supported by divisional chiefs. The Awoamefia is the Paramount Chief of the Anlos, and is currently represented by a Regent Togbui Sri III, whose role has from time to time come under serious contention, affecting socio-economic development in the area.
The main Festival celebrated by the Anlos is Hogbetsotso, which is a full one week line-up of colourful celebrations with cultural and ritual displays and is celebrated in the first week of November every year.
+Political power is exercised by the Municipal Assembly which is made up of 48 elected Assemblymen and women and the Municipal Chief Executive who is appointed by the President. The Chief Executive is supported by an administrative set up which manages the Municipality. The various heads of departments function under the aegis of the Municipal Chief Executive and their mother ministries and play key roles to support the Assemblymen and women to improve their communities. Each Assemblyman or woman has political control over his electoral area. Urban, town and area councils are also in place. Unit committees are also in place and exercise political administration in the villages and communities. For purposes of health delivery, the Municipality is sub divided into six sub municipalities, namely Keta, Tegbi, Anloga, Anyanui, Anyako and Shime.
The Municipality depends for its development largely on its share of the District Assemblies Common Fund. Too little is generated internally to impact on local development. The Common Fund, apart from being inadequate for needs identified, is usually behind schedule and this makes the Assembly incapable to support sectoral programmes.

Economic Activities
Keta Municipality is mainly agricultural Municipality, with the majority of the people engaged in crop farming, sea and/ or lagoon fishing, livestock keeping and other related trading activities.
Vegetables are the main crops grown under irrigation on the flood plains along the coast, while other crops such as maize, cassava, cowpea and potatoes are grown in the northern parts. The vegetables cultivated are shallot, pepper, tomato and okro.
Other occupations that exist in the Municipality include processing of fish and cassava, sugar cane juice distilling, coconut-oil extraction, salt mining, sand winning, weaving of kente, straw mat (ketsiba) and pouch (kevi), and pottery.
Fish, vegetables and salt (un-iodised) are the most important products from the area.
Poverty is seasonal, relating to changes in fish stock levels throughout the year: malnutrition in children and pregnant women generally increases when fish stocks are depleted.
Major markets within the Municipality are held at Keta, Anloga, Anlo-Afiadenyigba, and Atiavi every five days. There is a Wednesday market held at Anyanui. At Woe, markets are held on Mondays and Thursdays.
Transport And Communication
There are two modes of transport systems in the Municipality -road and water transport. The road transport is the most predominant, accounting for more than 98% of the journeys made.
While good road network passes prevails in the southern belt, the middle belt has a difficult terrain; it is covered with many creeks and lagoons. Health delivery in these areas is made quite difficult especially during the rainy season, when some of the already bad roads get flooded. The communities thus affected become completely cut off from the rest of the Municipality. This means that, most areas especially in the Middle Belt could only be made accessible on foot. Public transport is irregular in the Kome and Shime areas, which have access to transport only on market days. This has severe implications for referrals from the Kome and Shime sub municipality areas. Reduction of avoidable deaths in this part will benefit partly from the improvement of road sector.
Communication between the Municipality, other district capitals, regional capital and national capital is quite good via telephone or fax. E-mail communication is also available. There are eight post offices within the Municipality. Telephone services within the Municipality are also quite reliable via fixed or mobile network.
There is a private FM radio station which has proved to be an invaluable tool for information dissemination. Letter/ verbal messages delivered through sub Municipal health staff to elders, chiefs, Assemblymen, Area Council Chairmen and other opinion leaders, exist as a credible channel for community mobilization. School teachers also play active role in mobilizing communities and schools.
EDUCATION
The Keta Municipality is endowed with many educational institutions. Education has been one of the most treasured modern cultures adopted by the people, although there are gender disparities in access to education between boys and girls.
Educational facilities in Keta Municipality.

Total schools 228
Day nurseries 46
Primary schools 107
Junior Hi schools gh secondary 62
Senior High secondary schools 10
Senior Secondary /Technical 02
School for the physically handicapped 01
Health Assistants ( Clinical ) Training School 01

(Source: Ghana Education Service, Keta Municipality. December, 2000.)
There are basic schools scattered throughout the Municipality. At least each sub- municipality has between 4 – 5 basic schools. The Keta Sub- Municipality has the largest number of about 25 basic schools. About 80% of children in the Municipality attend school.
Environmental Health
Waste disposal is under the waste management department of the Keta Municipal Assembly. The Municipality has containers put at vantage points in the urban areas, especially in parts of Keta and Anloga sub- Municipalities, where households drop in solid waste. When the container is full, it is removed and dumped at depressed and marshy areas to reclaim the land mainly along the lagoon, where some are re-claiming the land for developmental purposes. The management of refuse dumped at these areas leave much to be desired, as it is not well controlled. The Municipality does not have a final refuse disposal site due to the difficulties the Municipality Assembly is facing to acquire land because people are not willing to release land for this purpose.
Most of the people in the rural areas lack publicly organized refuse management systems. However, some manage their waste on community basis. The refuse is dumped at areas to be reclaimed (marshy and depressed areas). From time to time, communal labour is organized in the rural communities to spread and control the refuse. In other communities with leadership problems, environmental sanitation is becoming a real problem.
In the Municipality, toilet facilities in use include septic tanks, ventilated pit latrines, pan latrines and aqua privy. The use of pan latrines in the district is dying down. Currently there are no systems to dispose of liquid waste from homes. Indiscriminate disposal of human waste along the beach and the lagoon is practised in a number of communities despite effort to protect and beautify the coastline.
Pipe-bone water is available to 80% of the people in the municipality. However in Shime sub municipality and Anyako sub municipality, there are still some communities which depend on streams and creeks for their domestic water.

Health Delivery
The municipality is endowed with a number of health facilities which provide various levels of services. Ownership is both public and private with public facilities dominating. Informal services also exist.
Level of services available:
 Community level-100 sites offering periodic preventive/ promotive outreach clinics run by Community Health Nurses, Community Health Officers in two CHPS zones, 54 trained traditional birth attendants, unspecified number of traditional healers and herbalists, chemical shops 3 private clinics, 4 private maternity homes, school health services in 124 schools, and a few prayer camps.
 Sub municipality level-10 health centres offering primary care services, some with maternal services, offering basic health care [curative, promotive and preventive care] with minimal technological support,
Municipality level- with a Municipal Hospital, Keta Government Hospital and one sub municipal hospital, Sacred Heart Hospital, run by the Catholic Mission in Abor-Weme, which offer primary and secondary level care in support of the health centres; the Municipal Health Management Team functions at this level to have oversight responsibility/supervision for service provision, issues of equity of access, health system development, disease surveillance, training, collaboration, among others. Both hospitals have reproductive and child health centres attached to them. Table 4: Distribution of formal heath facilities in Keta Municipality
Health facilities in the Municipal

Facility type Number
Hospital 2
Health centres (public) 11
Health centre (mission) 1
Private clinic (general services) 3
Private maternity 4
Functional CHPS zone 5
RCH centre 1
CHPS zone yet to be operationalised 2

The two hospitals have a total bed state of 200. There are two permanent doctors in the Municipal hospital and three doctors in the Catholic Mission hospital.
While preventive services are free, access to health services have been greatly enhanced by the Municipal Wide Mutual Health insurance Scheme which has an enrolment of over 70%.